Command mode shortcuts

  • Esc: To go into command mode
  • Enter: To go back to edit mode
  • M: To convert a cell to a markdown cell
  • Y: To convert a cell back to a code cell
  • A: To insert a new cell above
  • B: To insert a new cell below
  • D + D: To delete cell
  • Z: Undo the last operation
  • F: To find and replace on your code
  • Shift + Up/Down: To select multiple cells
  • Space: Scroll notebook downwards
  • Shift + Space: Scroll notebook upwards
  • Shift + M: To merge selected cells

Edit mode shortcuts

  • Shift + Enter: To execute the code in the current cell and go to the next cell
  • Alt + Enter: To execute the code in the current cell and insert new cell below
  • Shift + Tab: To get a brief documentation of the object that you have just typed in the coding cell
  • Ctrl + Shift + -: To split the cell at the cursor


  • # for the titles
  • ## for the main headings
  • ### for the subheadings
  • #### for the smaller subheadings
  • ##### for the italic subheadings


  • __string__ or **string** for bold text
  • _string_ or *string* for italic text

Monospace fonts

  • A back single quotation mark ` on both sides to get monospace fonts

Line breaks

  • <br> wherever you want a line break, as the notebook sometimes doesn`t give you the required line break where you want it


  • > to indent the text
  • >> for further indenting it, and so on

Bullets and numbering

  • A single dash, i.e. - followed by two spaces to make bullet points
  • A number and a dot followed by a space, i.e. 1. to make numbered lists


  • <font color = blue, yellow, red, pink, green, etc.> String </font> to give your font any colour that you want

LaTeX Equations

  • $ on both the sides of the text to write LaTeX equations

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